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dojo/request/xhr

authors:Bryan Forbes
since:V1.8

dojo/request/xhr is a provider that uses XMLHttpRequest (XHR) <https://developer.mozilla.org/en/DOM/XMLHttpRequest> objects to make asynchronous requests. It is the default provider for browser based platforms.

Introduction

dojo/request/xhr deprecates dojo/_base/xhr and is part of Dojo’s Request API. XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is the core of AJAX development and provides an asynchronous way for sending and receiving information in a browser based platform. This module is implemented in a cross-browser fashion so that end developer don’t need to be aware of the differences between different browsers in order to use the functionality.

Of course, the aim of the Request API is to further abstract the end developers from having to code for the particular platform they are on, and requiring the dojo/request module would automatically load the dojo/request/xhr module if the code was running in a browser, but the module can be required directly if desired.

Usage

An example of making a request to retrieve some JSON would look like:

require(["dojo/request/xhr"], function(xhr){
  xhr("example.json", {
    handleAs: "json"
  }).then(function(data){
    // Do something with the handled data
  }, function(err){
    // Handle the error condition
  }, function(evt){
    // Handle a progress event from the request if the
    // browser supports XHR2
  });
});

dojo/request/xhr takes two arguments:

Argument Type Description
url String The URL that the request should be made to.
options Object? Optional A hash of options.

The options argument supports the following:

Property Type Default Description
data String|Object null Data, if any, that should be sent with the request. Newer browsers can use use FormData <https://developer.mozilla.org/en/DOM/XMLHttpRequest/FormData> objects as well.
query String|Object null The query string, if any, that should be sent with the request.
sync Boolean false If the request should be blocking or not. If true the request will block until the request is resolved.
preventCache Boolean false If true will send an extra query parameter to ensure the browser and the server won’t supply cached values.
method String GET The HTTP method that should be used to send the request.
timeout Integer null The number of milliseconds to wait for the response. If this time passes the request is canceled and the promise rejected.
handleAs String text The content handler to process the response payload with.
headers Object  

A hash of the custom headers to be sent with the request. Defaults to:

{ 'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' }

dojo/request/xhr() returns a promise that is fulfilled with the handled data of the response. Errors will be directed to the errback if provided. Progress data will be given to the progress handler if it is provided and if the browser supports XHR2 progress events.

The provider defaults to GET but the method option can be used to expressly set the method; helper functions are provided for common methods:

get()

Same as the base function, but the method is set to GET.

post()

Same as the base function, but the method is set to POST.

put()

Same as the base function, but the method is set to PUT.

del()

Same as the base function, but the method is set to DELETE.

Examples

This example retrieves some JSON from the server and then outputs the data that is returned.

require(["dojo/request/xhr", "dojo/dom", "dojo/dom-construct", "dojo/json", "dojo/on", "dojo/domReady!"],
function(xhr, dom, domConst, JSON, on){
  on(dom.byId("startButton"), "click", function(){
    domConst.place("<p>Requesting...</p>", "output");
    xhr("helloworld.json", {
      handleAs: "json"
    }).then(function(data){
      domConst.place("<p>response: <code>" + JSON.stringify(data) + "</code></p>", "output");
    });
  });
});
<h1>Output:</h1>
<div id="output"></div>
<button type="button" id="startButton">Start</button>

This example intentionally attempts to retrieve a resource that doesn’t exist in order to demonstrate how the error handling works.

require(["dojo/request/xhr", "dojo/dom", "dojo/dom-construct", "dojo/json", "dojo/on", "dojo/domReady!"],
function(xhr, dom, domConst, JSON, on){
  on(dom.byId("startButton"), "click", function(){
    domConst.place("<p>Requesting...</p>", "output");
    xhr("nothing.json").then(function(text){
      domConst.place("<p>response: <code>" + text + "</code></p>", "output");
    }, function(err){
      domConst.place("<p>error: <p>" + err.response.text + "</p></p>", "output");
    });
  });
});
<h1>Output:</h1>
<div id="output"></div>
<button type="button" id="startButton">Start</button>

The following example demonstrates how to set query parameters. Note: you will need to use developer tools to inspect the request to see the parameters.

require(["dojo/request/xhr", "dojo/dom", "dojo/dom-construct", "dojo/json", "dojo/on", "dojo/domReady!"],
function(xhr, dom, domConst, JSON, on){
  on(dom.byId("startButton"), "click", function(){
    domConst.place("<p>Requesting...</p>", "output");
    xhr("helloworld.json",{
      query: {
        key1: "value1",
        key2: "value2"
      },
      handleAs: "json"
    }).then(function(data){
      domConst.place("<p>response: <code>" + JSON.stringify(data) + "</code></p>", "output");
    });
  });
});
<h1>Output:</h1>
<div id="output"></div>
<button type="button" id="startButton">Start</button>

See also